1. Tenon or back saw.
These saws are available in blade lengths of between 203mm and 355mm (8in and 14in) with 13, 14, 15, 16 or 20 points per inch (ppi). This is used for jointing and cutting across the grain on small pieces. The back of the blade may be of brass or steel. The saw with 20 ppi is for cutting dovetails and it has a thin blade to give greater accuracy. The dovetail saw performs a ripping action, so cut along the grain on very hard wood.
2. Hand saw.
This is used for cutting larger pieces of timber. There are three types of hand-saw. The one shown here is a panel saw. It is 508mm to 558mm long with 10 ppi. Its specialist purpose is for fine cross cut and jointing work and for cutting plywood, blockboard and hardboard. The other types of hand-saw are the rip saw and the cross cut saw. The rip saw is 661mm (26in) long with 5 ppi. Its specialist purpose is for cutting softwoods, working with the grain. The cross cut saw is 610mm to 661mm (24in to 26in) long with 6,7 or 8 ppi and is specially used for cutting across the grain of hardwoods and softwoods and for working with the grain on very hard wood.
3. G cramps.
These are used for a range of cramping purposes. These cramps are available in a 25mm to 457mm (1in to 18in) range of opening and between 25mm to 203mm (1in to 8in) depth of throat. When using G cramps always place a waste scrap of timber between the piece to be cramped and the shoes of the cramps. This prevents bruising of the piece.
4. Rachet brace.
This has spring loaded jaws in a screw tightened chuck. It is specially designed for holding wood auger bits
(5). The brace is available with or without a reversible rachet in a sweep (the arc described by the turning handle of the brace) ranging from 148mm to 355mm .
5. Wood auger bits.
These are used with Rachet braces.
6. Hand drill.
This is used for holding wood and metal twist drill bits and countersink or rose bits.
7. Twist bits.
These are commonly available in sizes ranging up to 13mm. The type of steel used depends on the use to which the bit is to be put.
8. Countersink or rose bit.
This is used for countersinking drilled holes so that countersunk screw heads will fit flush with the surface of the piece you are working with.
9. Warrington pattern or cross pein hammer.
This is used for general nailing and joinery and can be used for planishing and beating metal. Weights of these hammers range from 170g to 450g.
10. Claw hammer.
This is used for general purpose carpentry, in particular, for driving and removing nails. When taking out nails, make sure that the nail head is well into the claw of the hammer and, if it is necessary to protect the surface of the wood, place a scrap piece of timber between the claw and the wood. Exert even pressure to lever the nail out.
11. Carpenter’s or joiner’s mallet.
This is used for general carpentry and cabinet work and is available in head lengths of between 100mm (4in) and 180mm
12. Handyman’s knife.
This useful carpentry knife can be fitted with a variety of blades to suit specific purposes. The blades include angled concave, convex, linoleum and hooked blades. Wood and metal saw blades can also be fitted to this tool as can a blade for cutting plastic laminate.
13. Bench plane.
There are various types of bench plane and they are available in a range of lengths and widths. The smooth plane comes in lengths of between 241mm to 260mm. The Jack plane is available in lengths of between 356mm and 381mm. The Fore plane is 457mm long and 60mm wide. The Jointer or Try plane is 561mm long. When working with resinuous or sticky woods, a plane with a longitudinally corrugated sole makes the job of planing easier because friction between
the timber and the plane is reduced. If you do not have such a plane apply a spot of vegetable oil to the sole of your ordinary plane – this will perform much the same function.
14. Surform plane.
This is one of a range of open rasp/planing tools, all of which are useful and versatile. They are primarily used for rough work but with care some reasonably fine craftmanship can be produced. Each tool in this range has replaceable blades.
15. Block plane.
This small plane is particularly useful for fine cabinet work and for planing end grain.
16. Sliding bevel.
This tool is used for setting out angles, or bevels.
This is a chisel pointed boring tool used for marking screw positions and counterboring for small size screws.
18. Adjustable steel rule.
The pocket size variety, when fully extended, range in lengths. The larger varieties are available in either steel, glassfibre or fabric.
19. Carpenter’s square.
This is used for setting out right angles and for testing edges when planing timber square. The tool has a sprung steel blade and the stock is protected by a thin strip of brass or other soft metal.
20. Marking gauge.
This is used to mark one or more lines on a piece of timber, parallel to one edge of that timber. Some types have a mortise gauge which has a fixed point on one side and one fixed and one adjustable point on the other. Its specific use is for marking out mortise and tenon joints but it can be used in the same way as an ordinary marking gauge.
21. Folding boxwood rule.
This tool is also available in plastic. Primarily for joinery and carpentry use, it should be used narrow edge onto the timber for the most accurate marking.
22. Scriber marking knife.
One end of this tool is ground to a chisel shaped cutting edge for marking timber. The other end is sharpened to a point and can be used for scribing metal.
23. Nail punch or set.
This tool is used for tapping pin and nail heads below the surface of timber. A range of head sizes is available to suit pin and nail sizes.
24. Centre punch.
This is used for spot marking metal to give a guide for drilling. The point is marked by tapping the wide end of the tool with a hammer. Automatic centre punches are available. These are spring loaded so you do not have to tap the end of the tool.
25. Carpenter’s pencil.
This has an oblong shaped lead which is sharpened to a chisel edge so that it can be used to black in lines scribed on timber.
26. Pozidriv type screwdriver.
This tip is designed for use with Pozidriv type screws which are increasingly replacing screws with the conventional blade head. The Pozidriv screw head allows for greater contact between the screwdriver tip and the screw head – providing of course that the correct size of screwdriver is used. This makes for greater torque (twisting power) and reduces the likelihood of tool slip and consequent damage to the work.
27. Cabinet screwdriver.
This tool is available in blade lengths of between 75mm and 457mm and tip widths of between 4.8mm to 13mm. The screwdriver tip should fit the screw slot completely and the risk of tool slip will be further reduced if the screwdriver tip has been cross ground.
28. Carpenter’s chisels.
These are available in several shapes and sizes of both handles and blades. The firmer bevel edge chisels are probably the most useful all round chisels to have in a basic tool kit. Chisel handles are either of ash, boxwood or plastic. Plastic handles are virtually unbreakable on quality chisels but timber handles should be treated with care and should only be hit with a wooden mallet.
These are used for sharpening the cutting edges of such tools as planes and chisels. There are two main kinds of oilstone, natural and artificial. Natural stone comes in several types. Artificial stones come in three grades – coarse, medium arid fine – and have the advantage of maintaining their quality.
30. Fine machine oil.
This has many lubricating uses in the workshop and is a reasonable substitute for Neatsfoot oil when using an oilstone.
31. Honing gauge.
This is a useful device for holding bladed tools at the correct angle for sharpening on an oilstone. The disadvantage of this tool is that it tends to cause wear in the centre of the oilstone rather than distributing the wear evenly over the whole stone.
32. Junior hacksaw.
This is a general purpose saw for light metalworking jobs.
33. Shoulder pincers.
These are used for pulling nails and pins from timber. If possible, always place a scrap of waste timber between the jaws of the pincers and the work piece to avoid bruising.
34. Slip joint pliers.
This tool has a thin section so that the jaws can reach into tight places. It has two jaw opening positions and shear type of wire cutter.